VHIL Presence Scale

In many of our studies, we ask questions to help us measure immersion. Our Presence Scales have evolved over the last two decades and the nine item scale below is the latest iteration. At the bottom of the page, you will also find a PDF version of some of our legacy scales. You are free to use either. The old scales each have a citation noted. If using the new scale, please cite the following paper:

Han, E., Miller, M., Ram, N., Nowak, K., and Bailenson, J.N. (under review). 20,000 Shared Minutes in Virtual Reality: A Large-Scale, Longitudinal Field Study of the Evolution of Groups.

Presence Scales

Please rate the extent to which you felt the following (5-point; 1-Not at all, 2-Slightly, 3-Moderately, 4-Very, 5-Extremely)

Social Presence

  1. It felt like the other people in the room were with me.
  2. It felt like I was face-to-face with others.
  3. It felt like the other people were aware of my presence.

Self Presence

  1. I felt that my avatar represented me.
  2. When something happened to my avatar, I felt like it was happening to me.
  3. I felt like I was able to control my avatar as though it were my own.

Spatial Presence

  1. It felt as if I was inside the virtual world.
  2. It felt as if I was visiting another place.
  3. It felt like I could reach out and touch the objects in the virtual environment.