VHIL Presence Scale

Feel free to use the following 15 item Presence Scale for research purposes. If used, please cite the following paper:

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., & Loomis, J.M. (2001). Equilibrium theory revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10. 583-598.

Social Presence
How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements about your partner?

  1. I felt like I was face-to-face with my partner.
  2. I felt like I was in the same room as my partner.
  3. I felt like my partner was watching me.
  4. I felt like my partner was aware of my presence.
  5. I felt like my partner was present.

Self-Presence
How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements about your avatar?

  1. I felt like my avatar’s body was my own body.
  2. I felt like I was my avatar’s body.
  3. I felt like my avatar was an extension of me.
  4. I felt like my avatar was me.
  5. When something happened to my avatar, I felt like it was happening to me.

Environmental Presence
Likert scale from 1-5 (not at all – slightly – moderately – very – extremely)

  1. To what extent did you feel like you were inside the virtual world?
  2. To what extent did you feel immersed in the virtual world?
  3. To what extent did you feel surrounded by the virtual world you saw and heard?
  4. How much did it feel as if you visited another place?
  5. How much is the virtual world like the real world?